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Notes Based on Corrected Students' Background & refernces

In all your text, one space before opening parentheses, one space after closing parentheses. No space before commas and full stops, but one space after commas and full stops, as I am doing on this page.




In the reference chapter, don't capitalize the names of journals, don't capitlaise all the letters of the name of a book or a title of an article. Follow the capitalisation rules you are using, even if the original book cover uses all caps, change it to fit capitalization rules. If there is a question mark in the title, don't follow it with a full stop or comma. Only the last name comes first, all the other names are first names.


Find the name of the city for the second source. Remember, we use the name of cities as place of publication, not the names of countries. In the UK, the name of the city will be immediately before the post code. Post codes are something like this EH3 5DQ or W1G 6BW.  When it comes to books published in the USA, then you need the name of the city and the initials of the state. You will find the name of the city just before the zip code, which looks something like this: NY 10019. You  DON'T need the zip code or the post code, you need the name of the city that comes before them. 


This is an example of a British (UK) publisher:

Pearson Education Ltd

Freepost ANG2041

Harlow CM20 2JE


You need the city only. So you will write Harlow



This is an example of an American (USA) publisher:


Penguin Group (USA)

Library Marketing Department (Adult Division)

375 Hudson Street

New York, NY 10014 


You need the name of the city and the initials of the state (the initials will normally be in the address, but you can google the state if you are not sure):  New York (N. Y.)



Attention to the use of the definite article, 'the'. It is not used the same way we use it in Arabic language. Please check the grammatical point in your ENGL 155 book or in my Grammar page in this blog.



The Use of ibid. If you have quoted from a references (whether direct or indirect) and used the in-text reference to acknowledge the reference, and then again you use another quote (whether direct or indirect) from the same reference, you write ibid.  between parentheses (don't forget the full stop), which means 'the same as the previous reference.  If then you need to finish the sentences, close the parentheses, and add another full stop. See the example below:


Researchers often wondered if there were any differences between make and female students when it comes to their attitude toward the computers. According to Sam, Othman and Nordin (2005: 21), there was difference between female students and male students only in computer self–efficiency. The students whom they surveyed in their study “did not show any significant difference in their computer anxiety levels and attitudes towards the Internet” (ibid.).



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